Excess adiposity, or obesity, is a major risk factor in several disease states including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hepatic steatosis and at least 13 types of cancers [2–5].
What is adipose tissue disorders?
Adipocyte and adipose tissue dysfunction belong to the primary defects in obesity and may link obesity to several health problems including increased risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, dementia, airway disease and some cancers.
What causes adipose tissue inflammation?
The main source of this inflammation is WAT, an active endocrine organ largely responsive to changes in physical activity and metabolism. An emerging body of evidence suggests that physical inactivity may directly and adversely affect the WAT, therefore leading to local and systemic inflammation.
How does diabetes affect adipose tissue?
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle provoke insulin resistance and at the islet, provokes beta cell dysfunction. It is the combination of insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction that characterizes DM.
What are some consequences of a body with too little adipose tissue?
For example, patients having deficiency of adipose tissue (lipodystrophy) redistribute fat to skeletal muscle and liver 8, 9, 10. This ectopic fat seemingly underlies severe insulin resistance, fatty liver, diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia.
What causes loss of adipose tissue?
In most cases, adipose tissue loss begins during puberty. FPL can be associated with a variety of metabolic abnormalities. The extent of adipose tissue loss usually determines the severity of the associated metabolic complications. These complications can include glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes.
What increases adipose tissue?
Adipose tissue grows by two mechanisms: hyperplasia (cell number increase) and hypertrophy (cell size increase). … Moreover, high-fat feeding increases the rate of adipose cell size growth, independent of strain, reflecting the increase in calories requiring storage.
How does type 2 diabetes affect adipose tissue?
Taken together, adipose tissue inflammation is a key factor in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in obesity, along with other factors that likely include inflammation and fat accumulation in other metabolically active tissues.
Does inflammation cause weight gain?
Studies show that inflammation is a common underlying factor in all major degenerative diseases — including heart disease, cancer, hypertension, and diabetes — and that it can also cause weight gain and difficulty losing weight. The good news: inflammation is linked to several diet and lifestyle factors.
What is adipose tissue inflammatory?
Adipose tissue inflammation is initiated and sustained over time by dysfunctional adipocytes that secrete inflammatory adipokines and by infiltration of bone marrow-derived immune cells that signal via production of cytokines and chemokines.
How does obesity affect adipose tissue?
Obesity leads to adipose tissue dysfunction, triggering the release of pro-inflammatory adipokines which can directly act on cardiovascular tissues to promote disease.
What type of increased adipose tissue raises the risk of diabetes and heart disease?
Excessive amounts of visceral fat also is considered to be a form of ectopic fat, and as noted earlier, is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome and an increased risk of T2DM and cardiovascular complications (286).
What is the cause of metabolic syndrome?
Metabolic syndrome is closely linked to overweight or obesity and inactivity. It’s also linked to a condition called insulin resistance. Normally, your digestive system breaks down the foods you eat into sugar. Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas that helps sugar enter your cells to be used as fuel.
What hormones does adipose tissue produce?
It is now widely accepted that white adipose tissue (WAT) secretes a number of peptide hormones, including leptin, several cytokines, adipsin and acylation-stimulating protein (ASP), angiotensinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), adiponectin, resistin etc., and also produces steroids hormones.
What happens to adipose tissue when losing weight?
During weight loss, energy stores are mobilized from adipocytes and adipocytes become smaller. During weight gain and weight regain, energy is accumulated and adipocytes become larger. The broad range for adipocyte size provides enormous flexibility for the amount of energy that can be stored at any one time.
How do I get rid of adipose tissue?
To get rid of the buildup of subcutaneous fat, you must burn energy/calories. Aerobic activity is a recommended way to burn calories and includes walking, running, cycling, swimming, and other movement-based activities that increase the heart rate.