Cortisol insufficiency induces the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) [1, 2], resulting in syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuresis (SIAD)-like conditions . The metabolic acidosis is due to insufficiency of aldosterone, which decreases acid secretion in the kidney.
Why does Addison’s cause metabolic acidosis?
Metabolic acidosis (increased blood acidity), also is due to loss of the hormone aldosterone because sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule is linked with acid/hydrogen ion (H+) secretion.
What are the metabolic abnormalities associated with adrenal insufficiency?
The most common laboratory findings in chronic primary adrenal insufficiency are anemia, hyponatremia, and hyperkalemia.
What is the pathophysiology of adrenal insufficiency?
Primary adrenocortical insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands fail to release adequate amounts of these hormones to meet physiologic needs, despite release of ACTH from the pituitary. Infiltrative or autoimmune disorders are the most common cause, but adrenal exhaustion from severe chronic illness also may occur.
What happens during adrenal insufficiency?
Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary gland doesn’t make enough of the hormone ACTH. The adrenal glands then don’t make enough cortisol. Mild symptoms may be seen only when a person is under physical stress. Other symptoms may include weakness, fatigue, and weight loss.
Which conditions can cause metabolic acidosis?
It can be caused by:
- Carbon monoxide poisoning.
- Drinking too much alcohol.
- Exercising vigorously for a very long time.
- Liver failure.
- Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
- Medicines, such as salicylates, metformin, anti-retrovirals.
- MELAS (a very rare genetic mitochondrial disorder that affects energy production)
How does hyponatremia cause metabolic alkalosis?
Severe vomiting also causes loss of potassium (hypokalemia) and sodium (hyponatremia). The kidneys compensate for these losses by retaining sodium in the collecting ducts at the expense of hydrogen ions (sparing sodium/potassium pumps to prevent further loss of potassium), leading to metabolic alkalosis.
How does Addison’s disease affect metabolism?
Glucocorticoid deficiency contributes to hypotension and causes severe insulin sensitivity and disturbances in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. In the absence of cortisol, insufficient carbohydrate is formed from protein; hypoglycemia and decreased liver glycogen result.
Why does adrenal insufficiency cause hyperpigmentation?
Hyperpigmentation in primary adrenal insufficiency is caused by an increased production of α-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone (αMSH). 7 Both αMSH and ACTH originate from the pro-hormone peptide pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
Why do you get hyponatremia with adrenal insufficiency?
Hyponatremia is often seen in patients with adrenal insufficiency, which is caused by an inappropriate increase in vasopressin secretion/action due to cortisol deficiency  and inability to excrete free water.
Why does acute adrenal insufficiency occur?
Risk factors for adrenal crisis include physical stress such as infection, dehydration, trauma, or surgery, adrenal gland or pituitary gland injury, and ending treatment with steroids such as prednisone or hydrocortisone too early.
Does adrenal insufficiency cause low blood pressure?
With adrenal insufficiency, the inability to increase cortisol production with stress can lead to an addisonian crisis. An addisonian crisis is a life-threatening situation that results in low blood pressure, low blood levels of sugar and high blood levels of potassium. You will need immediate medical care.
What helps adrenal insufficiency?
Although there’s no cure, primary adrenal insufficiency can be managed effectively by taking cortisol and aldosterone replacement hormones, with the goal of stabilizing hormone levels and relieving signs and symptoms.
Why does Addison’s disease cause hyponatremia and hyperkalemia?
Hyponatremia is mainly due to the increased release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) . Hyperkalemia in Addison’s disease is mediated mainly by hypoaldosteronism, and thus a deficiency of aldosterone will result in potassium retention, through its inability to excrete potassium in the urine .
Which are considered secondary causes of adrenal insufficiency?
Secondary adrenal insufficiency
- autoimmune disease.
- pituitary tumors or infection.
- bleeding in the pituitary.
- genetic diseases that affect the way the pituitary gland develops or functions.
- surgical removal of the pituitary to treat other conditions.
- traumatic brain injury link.
Which is a secondary cause of adrenal insufficiency?
Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by diseases of the adrenal gland (primary), interference with corticotropin (ACTH) secretion by the pituitary gland (secondary), or interference with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion by the hypothalamus (tertiary).